LUNA founder Do Kwon bets $10 million on price one year from now

Key Factors

The largest dangers to Terram and the place its worth might be in a single yr
Why LUNA isn’t competing towards Ethereum
Can 20% yield final on Anchor, and is it secure to make use of as your checking account?

The Guess

Crypto is usually a weird place. I don’t know of another business the place billionaires reply to nameless Twitter customers goading them into multi-million greenback bets.

However that’s precisely what we noticed final week, as “Sensei Algod”, an nameless Twitter account describing himself as a “semi-retired degen, now investing” referred to as out to Twitter enquiring if anybody would wager a million {dollars} that LUNA can be buying and selling at a cheaper price in a yr.

The stakes then elevated. Fellow anon account @GiganticRebirth waded in. This man describes himself as a “retired dealer” and “2024 Presidential candidate”. Has Donald Trump managed to anonymously creep his manner again onto Twitter? Or possibly it’s a Kanye West burner account – he nonetheless intends to run in 2024, proper? Whoever he’s, he upped the stakes to $10 million {dollars}.

Subsequent to enter the fray was the massive canine himself, Terra founder Do Kwon. The multi-billionaire is commonly susceptible to taking the bait on Twitter, passionately defending the Terra ecosystem towards critics.  

And identical to that, girls and gents, we had ourselves a wager. It’s superb what a couple of large egos can accomplish when within the public eye, isn’t it?

Luna – One Yr Forecast

So, who’s going to win? The place does LUNA commerce at, let’s say, St Patrick’s Day 2023?

Let’s take a dive into LUNA and take a look at verify which facet will come out on high. In the event you disagree with me, you possibly can name me out on Twitter and I’ll put my cash the place my mouth is (though, let’s decrease the stakes from $10 million to $10).

The fundamentals, tremendous fast: LUNA is the token upon which the Terra ecosystem runs. Terra’s worth is derived from a collection of stablecoins, probably the most distinguished of which is UST. As UST demand rises, Luna is burnt, and as UST demand falls, LUNA is minted. In such a manner, the peg is maintained – a fairly neat algorithmic mechanism that works off the rules of arbitrage.

The underside line that we have to perceive right here is that the LUNA worth depends on UST adoption. As extra UST is demanded, LUNA is burnt and the worth will rise.

Whole Worth Locked

Trying on the DeFi panorama, there’s a complete of $206 billion in complete worth locked (TVL). Terra captures 12.3% of this, with $25 billion in TVL. Thus, behind solely the dominant Ethereum (55% share of TVL at $114 billion), Terra sits because the second largest DeFi platform by TVL.

Knowledge by way of Defi Llama

Ethereum’s issues want no introduction. Out in the true world, individuals are shocked at fuel costs following the Russian invasion provide shock. After all, if anybody has transacted on Ethereum earlier than, these real-world fuel costs nonetheless appear low-cost in comparison with on the blockchain.

However an “ETH-killer” isn’t actually Terra’s sport. It will probably prosper alongside Ethereum, these two don’t should be rivals. But, once we plot the TVL over time, it’s clear that Terra is successful DeFi market share.  

Share of DeFi TVL, knowledge by way of Defi Llama

Now keep in mind, as we outlined earlier, the expansion in LUNA is immediately contingent upon UST adoption. It follows that with this growth in TVL within the Terra platform, we might count on to see a progress in UST, proper?

Market Cap of UST, knowledge by way of CoinMarketCap

Because the above graph exhibits, that’s precisely what has occurred. The expansion has been electrical – spiking from a market cap of simply above $2 billion final August to the place it at the moment sits, at $15 billion. Which means it’s the fourteenth largest cryptocurrency. Extra importantly, it’s the fourth largest stablecoin. As a result of Terra’s competitors will not be Ethereum; Terra’s competitors is different stablecoins.

It follows that the above graph that’s the key for LUNA. If Terra can proceed to wrestle management of the stablecoin market, then LUNA’s worth will rise. Terra wants elevated adoption of UST to proceed; it wants UST to develop into a dominant stablecoin, a necessary a part of the DeFi business.

So, let’s assess what’s inflicting this stablecoin progress.

One of many above stablecoins will not be like the opposite – that’s proper, Terra’s distinctive promoting level is that it boasts that all-important high quality of decentralisation. Not one of the above rivals supply this – Tether’s centralised nature (and questionable reserve standing) is nicely publicised, whereas USD Coin is issued by Circle. Binance USD is a part of the BNB juggernaut. All these cash, subsequently, are managed by establishments. Property could be frozen at will and belief within the issuing organisation is required.

Terra, alternatively, is totally decentralised, managed by way of the algorithmic peg described earlier. You simply should have religion that the peg holds, however extra on that later…

For buyers to carry UST, there needs to be an incentive. There have to be a collection of monetary merchandise on the Terra ecosystem by means of which buyers can obtain their monetary targets – be this borrowing, lending, shopping for shares, transacting day-to-day and so on.

That is the place Terra is excelling. To call however a pair, Mirror permits one to purchase shares, Chai is a funds app gaining growing reputation in Korea, whereas there are myriad different apps in growth.

However there may be one platform which is driving extra progress than another – Anchor. The borrowing and lending protocol affords lenders the chance to earn a yield shut to twenty% on UST, which has led many customers to transform their fiat into UST and deal with Achor as a de-facto financial savings account.

It’s been the most important push issue behind the expansion of LUNA. As beforehand sky-high yields within the DeFi area have evaporated, cash has poured into the Anchor protocol to seize the 20% yield, among the many highest accessible “secure” yields in the marketplace. UST market cap has thus swelled, with LUNA worth going vertical. However is it really “secure”?

 TVL progress of Anchor has been steep, knowledge by way of DeFi Llama

Because the above graph exhibits, there may be at the moment $13.3 billion TVL in Anchor, the protocol representing a chunky 52% of the TVL within the Terra ecosystem – so sure, it’s essential.

However can this 20% yield final, and is it secure? Answering this query is important to any future worth prediction of LUNA.

Let’s break the numbers down. I put collectively a easy mannequin of the Anchor financials beneath, and the way they stack up.


$2.6 billion of borrowings. The platform at the moment prices debtors 12.25%.
$4.3 billion of (bonded) LUNA and $1.1 billion of (bonded) Ethereum is equipped by those self same debtors as collateral towards their loans. Anchor makes use of this collateral to earn staking yield, thus producing additional earnings to pay lenders (at the moment circa. 7% for LUNA and 4.3% for Ethereum).


Chasing that 19.5% yield, there may be $10.5 billion of deposits in Anchor
19.5% is the yield paid out, equating to a essential $2 billion of annual funds

I ran the numbers on the above figures, with the output in a diagram beneath. As you possibly can see, there’s a shortfall of $1.4 billion yearly on the present figures. Which is an issue, largely derived from the truth that borrowing demand has dried up amid the lagging crypto market of latest instances. On the opposite facet of the coin (pun type of meant), increasingly more customers are depositing funds to earn the 19.5% yield.  

So, how is that soiled purple quantity mounted?

Anchor Printing

The system cheats, that’s how. The Anchor protocol itself has a local token. Borrowing demand is definitely being fuelled by the printing of those Anchor tokens, which incentivises borrowing by way of decrease rates of interest.

This Anchor printing, which causes the token to be very inflationary, is capped at 100 million tokens for the primary 4 years, and it’s already working at its most fee. On the present worth of $2.99 per Anchor token, that equates to $299 million that’s being printed every year and given to debtors, in an effort to prop up borrowing demand. And borrowing remains to be considerably lower than the place it must be to maintain the deposit curiosity.

As soon as this Anchor printing terminates, I count on the mercenary debtors emigrate elsewhere. Debtors will not be keen to A) hand over the staking yield on their collateral belongings and B) additionally pay the upper rate of interest. And this, actually, is precisely what we now have seen in different DeFi protocols – the migration of capital elsewhere as soon as the preliminary gold rush dries up. So, the above chasm might really widen.

Yield Reserve

Secondly, there’s something referred to as a Yield Reserve, which is a fund designed to high up the protocol when borrowing and lending demand is out of whack, akin to proper now. The present yield reserve holds $423 million, however solely after having been topped up by $450 million final month by Do Kwon himself. This yield reserve is designed to complement the curiosity Anchor pays out to depositers when it falls in need of the 19.5%. By my calculations, this $423 million is sufficient to plug the shortfall for 111 days at present charges.

Do Kwon shared the above tweet on Twitter final month, after he topped up the Yield Reserve by $450 million


This clearly doesn’t paint an optimistic image for sustainability of the 19.5%. Nonetheless, we’re leaving some information out. Anchor is a protocol which launched nearly a yr in the past to the day (March twenty first 2021). And it has $13.3 billion in TVL. That’s forward of just about all different protocols, plenty of which have been round for over twice the period of time.

No – the speed isn’t sustainable. After all it isn’t – if it was, there can be one thing completely mistaken. You’ll be able to’t go round incomes a juicy 20% long run for nothing, when the remainder of the world is scraping by off the breadcrumbs of the bottom fee setting in years. There is likely to be such factor as a free lunch every so often, however not indefinitely, because the well-known saying goes.

So, the yield reserve would require topping up once more.

However, so what? Like I stated, Anchor is a yr outdated. Do you assume it’s uncommon for start-ups to require money injections a yr into their lifespan? We have to cease wanting on the swelling deposits as a adverse, and begin appreciating the sheer quantity of them – $10 billion in a yr! The yield reserve high ups ought to merely be considered as start-up bills whereas Anchor finds its toes. The beginning-up is bootstrapping itself, let’s give it some respiratory room. Scroll as much as the UST market cap graph once more, and admire the immense progress there, and the way little time that X-axis covers. This has been a vertical experience, which could be seen by way of the LUNA worth, too.

Lengthy-Time period

After all, the topping up can’t go on ceaselessly. Anchor must develop into self-sustainable finally. Or, does it?

Even when the deposit fee drops to 14%, that will nonetheless place among the many greatest out there. And this shouldn’t be considered as a nasty factor. It’s not the kiss of loss of life; it’s signal of the protocol maturing. And keep in mind – as this layer fee drops, so will some deposit demand. Much less deposits means a better rate of interest payable. Identical to I forecasted earlier that the mercenary borrowing will take flight to different protocols as soon as Anchor printing ceases, we’ll see the identical on the deposit facet if when the yield falls. Yield-chasers will transfer on.

Because the above mannequin exhibits, the present sustainable fee is 6.29%. So, even with deposits 4X borrowings, the protocol can nonetheless pay out 6.29%. You assume your financial institution is paying you 6.29%? And that’s assuming no depositers flee if the speed drops. If we assume deposits fall 10%, and borrowings rise 10%, the balancing APR is 7.32% – a chunky rise of 103 bps towards the present scenario. And once more, within the context of the broader market, a really wholesome yield.So let’s relax with the eulogy preparations for Terra. Sure, the speed will completely fall from 19.5%. However that’s OK. You’ll nonetheless sleep at night time. You’ll nonetheless earn some yield. And, most related for this text, Terra (and LUNA) might be completely wonderful.


However there may be one different main threat I need to speak about. Like we stated earlier, the peg is maintained algorithmically by way of the legal guidelines of arbitrage. If UST trades above $1, it’s bought into LUNA till it’s again at $1, and vice-versa. However what if the promoting stress is so excessive? What would occur if everybody desires out of UST?

Properly, this has occurred earlier than. In instances of utmost market downturns, buyers have wished no a part of UST. They need good outdated fiat money. Let’s not overlook how ugly the crypto purple days can flip, and the way fast the sky can fall in crypto-land. 

UST worth historical past – with two stark examples of the place the peg wobbled, by way of CoinMarketCap

It’s not the sustainable fee on Anchor that’s the large hazard. It’s the above graph. These purple plunges are terrifying whenever you’re holding UST. If the peg breaks, Terra goes underneath – that’s not up for debate.

As could be seen above, Could 2021 is the newest instance of when the peg wobbled, with UST buying and selling at 95c. Which means individuals had been keen to take a 5% loss on their cash, simply to keep away from the possibility of dropping all their financial savings within the occasion UST collapsed. If Terra desires to be a good stablecoin, that merely can not occur underneath any circumstances. Would you settle for this at your fiat checking account?

Akin to a run on the banks, if no one desires to carry UST, even when there are arbitrage alternatives accessible, then there gained’t be consumers. Would you purchase a one greenback word for 95 cent should you felt there was an opportunity the US might stop to exist tomorrow? No, you wouldn’t.

After all, that day in Could 2021 was when crypto markets melted down, with a flight to high quality occurring throughout the area. There have been ugly days since, however none as dangerous that day, when Bitcoin plummeted 30% within the area of hours.

The excellent news is that, with each crash that UST survives, it turns into stronger. The ecosystem in the end survived the stress check, with Terra setting up additional safety measures to arrange for these contingencies.

Personally, I’m now comfy with the peg scenario, however this stays – and can at all times stay – the only largest threat to the ecosystem. It’s also price noting that the market cap of UST has 7X from that point. In one other black swan occasion, this could ramp up promoting stress considerably larger than what we noticed again in Could 2021, when UST was smaller. There might be considerably extra stress on LUNA if it has to soak up billions in promoting stress, and you would get a extra extreme stress check in consequence.  For me, nonetheless, the 19.5% yield is sufficient yield to compensate me for holding UST – however let’s not lose monitor of the dangers right here.


So, it’s time to reply the ten million greenback query. The place will LUNA be buying and selling on St Patricks Day subsequent yr, once I’m hopefully in my native Eire sipping on a pint of Guinness in a crowded pub? Above or beneath $87?

LUNA’s dominant worth motion during the last yr, by way of CoinMarketCap

A yr is a very long time in crypto. What makes this query troublesome is the very fact we have to predict not solely LUNA’s future, however the crypto market as an entire. Though, what’s intriguing right here is the truth that LUNA is without doubt one of the least correlated cash with Bitcoin within the high 50. It’s because because the market turns down, buyers promote their falling holdings into stablecoins, together with UST.

This, greater than the rest, is what buoys my confidence in UST holding its peg, and the well being of the ecosystem at giant. What higher litmus check than seeing how assured merchants are in holding the stablecoin as the broader market nosedives? That being stated, the LUNA worth would nonetheless undergo within the occasion of a chronic crypto bear market, even when it holds up higher than different cash.

 The escrow tackle for the wager, containing $22 million. The blockchain confirms it – the bets are on!

There’s a marketplace for a decentralised stablecoin, and LUNA doesn’t have a lot competitors right here. Throw within the apps which might be in growth, and I see no motive that the ecosystem can not proceed to draw capital. I imagine the market cap of UST might be larger once more in a yr’s time.

A heart-warming finish to the interplay

Individuals love yield, and the Anchor yield I imagine will nonetheless be lofty – maybe nonetheless locked round 19% – in a yr’s time. I feel the speed can final for a yr, and that’s all that the wager asks me to do. I solely want this peg to carry for one year – and that’s the true threat right here. The important thing right here is that point horizon of 1 yr.

So, ye, given we’re speaking one yr, I’ll take the over on the wager.

It’s boring to wager the underneath anyway, isn’t it?


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